Medical revolutions in Biology
Revolution in biology
- Inability feel pain - discovery of gene
- cystic fibrosis - identification of genetic cause
- breast cancer - who should do test more often based on gene
- skin cancer - drug targeted to gene
- high colesterol - drug research informed genetic analysis
Biological applications in forensics, history, and agriculture
- DNA fingerprinting
- identify people by dna
- complement archeology with dna analysis
- genetic engineering - creating transgenic plant and animals
- editing genome - ability to change a single letter
Four percent of a modern human genome is comprised of neanderthal DNA
The diversity of life
Whats not in this course?
- The stunning diversity of life
Biosphere: Earth Ecosystem: Forest Organism: Human Organ: Eye Tissues: Retina Cells: rods Organells: nucleus, mitochondrian Molecules: DNA, RNA
The vast diversity of life can best be appreciated at the organism level.
An overview of evolution and a comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
Evolution * 4.5 billion years ago (Byo) * 4.00 Byo earth cooled down * 3.7 Byo the 1st life is present- prokaryotic * 1.5 Byo 1st nucleated cells * 0.5 Byo multicellular life * 0.005 Byo first human like creatures * 0.0001 Byo homosapiens
cell biology * Eukaryotic * animal * plants * fungi * 10-40 µm * nucleus
- 1-2 µm
The largest evolutionary time gap lies betweent the appearance of the first life forms and the appearance of eukaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cells have nuclei, prokaryotic cells do not.
An E. coli bacterial cell is closer in size to a mitochondrion.
The fundamental principles and intellectual framework of biology
Fundamental priciples and intellectual unification of Biology
Biochemistry is the study of individual components purified away from the rest of life.
Geneticist study the organism minus one component. This usually a mutant, one component exactly wrong.
The discovery of the link between genes and proteins was the first intellectual unification of the 21st century. Thus began the study of molecular biology.
A scientist interested in studying olfaction begins her experiments by homogenizing a population of normal fruit flies as done with a mortar and pestle. You might best describe her as a Biochemist.
A scientist interested in studying olfaction begins her experiments by creating an obstacle course that fruit flies must navigate to gain access to a desired food source that releases scent molecule X. She finds flies that successfully navigate to the food source and flies that do not Geneticist. She would be most interested in the flies that did not navigate to the food source.