Medical revolutions in Biology

Revolution in biology

Biological applications in forensics, history, and agriculture

Four percent of a modern human genome is comprised of neanderthal DNA

The diversity of life

Whats not in this course?

Biosphere: Earth Ecosystem: Forest Organism: Human Organ: Eye Tissues: Retina Cells: rods Organells: nucleus, mitochondrian Molecules: DNA, RNA

The vast diversity of life can best be appreciated at the organism level.

An overview of evolution and a comparison of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells

Evolution * 4.5 billion years ago (Byo) * 4.00 Byo earth cooled down * 3.7 Byo the 1st life is present- prokaryotic * 1.5 Byo 1st nucleated cells * 0.5 Byo multicellular life * 0.005 Byo first human like creatures * 0.0001 Byo homosapiens

cell biology * Eukaryotic * animal * plants * fungi * 10-40 µm * nucleus

The largest evolutionary time gap lies betweent the appearance of the first life forms and the appearance of eukaryotic cells.

Eukaryotic cells have nuclei, prokaryotic cells do not.

An E. coli bacterial cell is closer in size to a mitochondrion.

The fundamental principles and intellectual framework of biology

Fundamental priciples and intellectual unification of Biology

Biochemistry is the study of individual components purified away from the rest of life.

Geneticist study the organism minus one component. This usually a mutant, one component exactly wrong.

The discovery of the link between genes and proteins was the first intellectual unification of the 21st century. Thus began the study of molecular biology.

A scientist interested in studying olfaction begins her experiments by homogenizing a population of normal fruit flies as done with a mortar and pestle. You might best describe her as a Biochemist.

A scientist interested in studying olfaction begins her experiments by creating an obstacle course that fruit flies must navigate to gain access to a desired food source that releases scent molecule X. She finds flies that successfully navigate to the food source and flies that do not Geneticist. She would be most interested in the flies that did not navigate to the food source.